Pengertian Direct Indirect/ Reported Speech (Kalimat langsung dan kalimat tidak langsung)

Direct Indirect (Reported Speech)-Direct Speech adalah kalimat yang diucapkan secara langsung oleh pembicara dan jika ditulis kalimat tersebut akan diberi tanda kutip. sedangkan Indirect Speech adalah kalimat yang kita laporkan kepada orang lain secara tidak langsung dan tanpa diberi koma.
Ex;

             D  : She says, “I am a student”                      
ID : She says that she is a student.
b.      D  : Ina has said to him, “I miss you”
ID : Ina has said to him that she misses him.



USAGE:
Untuk melaporkan kembali ucapan-ucapan yang disampaikan oleh si pembaca. 
Aturan-aturan merubah kalimat langsung ke kalimat tidak langsung;
1. Jika induk kalimat langsung berbentuk (S. Present, Present Perfect, S. future) maka kalimat tak langsung, tenses-nya tidak berubah (tetap).
2. Jika induk kalimat langsung berbentuk (past) maka kalimat tak langsung akan berubah tenses-nya, baik keterangan waktu/ tempat.

PERUBAHAN TENSES :
  1. S. Present                              → S. Past
  2. Present Continuous                → Past Continuous Tense
  3. Present Perfect                      → Past Perfect                                 →Past Perfect Cont
  4. Present Perfect Continuous    → Past Perfect Continuous               →Tetap
  5. S. Future                               → Past Future
  6. Future Continuous                 → Past Future Continuous                →Past F Perfect C
  7. Future Perfect                       → Past Future Perfect                       →Tetap
  8. Future Perfect Continuous     → Past Future Perfect Continuous     →Tetap
PERUBAHAN AUXIALIARY MODAL :
1.      Will/ Shall           →Would/ Should
2.      Can                    →Could
3.      May                   →Might
4.      Must                   →Had to
5.      Have to/ Has to  →Had to
6.      Could                →Could have
7.      Might                 →Might have

PERUBAHAN WAKTU DAN TEMPAT
1.      Now                 →Then
2.      Yesterday         →The day before
3.      Last week         →The week before
4.      Two days ago   →Two days before
5.      Today               →That day
6.      Tommorrow      →The following day/ next day
7.      Next month       →The following month
8.      Here                 →There
9.      This                  →That
1.     These                →Those

Artinya;
1. Sekarang → Lalu/ kemudian
2. Kemarin → Sehari sebelum
3. Pekan lalu → Seminggu sebelum
4. Dua hari yang lalu → Dua hari sebelum
5. Hari ini → Hari itu
6. Besok → Hari berikutnya / hari berikutnya
7. Bulan depan → Bulan berikutnya
8. Disini → Disana
9.  ini (tunggal) →Itu (tunggal)
10. Ini (jamak) → Itu (jamak)

DIRECT INDIRECT dibagi menjadi 3 macam :
1.      Statement  (Pernyataan)
2.      Question    (Pertanyaan)
3.      Command  (Perintah)

1. Statement : kata penghubungnya (conjuntion) “THAT’’
Ex;
a.       D  : She says, “I am a student”
ID : She says that she is a student.
b.      D  : Ina has said to him, “I miss you”
ID : Ina has said to him that she misses him.

2. Question
*) Introgative →Conjuntion ‘If or Wheter’
Ex;
a.       D   : Ani asks him, “Do you know my dictionary ?’’
ID  : Ani asks him if he knows her dictionary
b.      D   : He asked me, “Can you help me to carry my bag ?”
ID  : He asked me if I could help him to carry his bag.

*) Question Word →Conjuntion “Question word’’ itu sendiri
Ex;
a.       D  : Rina asks her mother, “Where is my hat ?’’
ID : Rina asks her mother where her hat is.
b.      D  : The boy asked her, “How many cards will we buy for our friends ?”
ID : The boy asked her if how many cards they would buy for their friends.

3.Command (perintah)
*) Negative Command “not to’’
*) Positive Command   “to’’
Ex;
a.       D  : He said to her, “Don’t come late !’’
ID : He suggested her not to come late.
b.      D  : She asks me, “Please mail my letter !”
ID : She asks me to mail her letter.
c.       D  : They asked him, “Don’t be lazzy to face your future !”
ID : They asked him not to be lazzy to face his future.
d.      D  : Father asked us, “Do what I do !”
ID : Father asked us to do what he did.

Keterangan:
D : Direct/ Langsung
ID: Indirect/ Tidak langsung

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2 Comments

Comments :

2 Comment to “Pengertian Direct Indirect/ Reported Speech (Kalimat langsung dan kalimat tidak langsung)”

Hary Muhlia said... on 

bahasa inggris memang gampang2 susah ya kang..

Akang Budi said... on 

Hee, iea banget sob......wajar sih karena bahasa inggris bukan bahasa kita

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